Next to Climate Change, Eutrophication, Biodiversity, Land-use Change, Water Scarcity and Toxicity six additional environmental impact categories are calculated.
The model of Accumulated Exceedance (Seppälä, Posch,
Johansson, & Hettelingh, 2006)1 reflects the potential of a substance to
cause the acid deposition or “acid rain” (Anderson & Thornback, 2012)2 as
its equivalent charge in mols of hydrogen ions (H+). This model is used in
AgBalance® Model, for the assessment of acidification of all emissions.
The chosen methodology considers the entire atmospheric lifetime, therefore, a substance can be characterized by the amount of ozone it can destroy. This characterization follows the assessment of the World Meterological Organisation (1999)3, which assess the impact of gaseous substances in the destruction of the stratospheric ozone layer as the equivalent mass of trichlorofluoromethane (CFC-11).
A model developed by UNEP-SETAC Task Force on PM (Fantke, et al., 2016)4 is used AgBalance® Model for the assessment of the impact of particulate matter. It quantifies the damage to human health caused by primary and secondary PM2,5, as a change in the mortality due to the exposure to these emissions in terms of deaths per kilogram of PM2,5.
Photochemical Ozone Formation
In AgBalance®, gaseous substances are characterized by their potential of photochemical ozone formation using the model of (Van Zelm, et al., 2008)5, based on the mass of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) as a reference.
Ressouce use: minerals and metals
The CML method is integrated in the model which considers the natural reserves of resources and their rates of extraction, using the depletion of the element antimony (Sb) as a reference, to derive characterization factors for the depletion of minerals and metals (Guinée & Heijungs, 1995)6 (van Oers, de Koning, Guinée, & Huppes, 2002)7. Thus, it indicates the decreasing availability of non-renewable resources as a relation between the consumption and scarcity of minerals and metals (Anderson & Thornback, 2012)2.
Resource use: energy carriers
Similar to the resource use of minerals and metals, it indicates the decreasing availability of energy-bearing materials as a relation between the consumption and scarcity of fossil fuels and uranium, based on the ultimate reserve of fossil carbon in the earth’s crust and uranium, respectively (Guinée & Heijungs, 1995; van Oers, de Koning, Guinée, & Huppes, 2002)6;7.
Other impact categories in AgBalance
All impact categories above are calculated based on the following input parameters. Examples are mining for fertilizer and plant protection raw materials, the use of coal and gas fro electricity and irrigation pumps and emissions from fuel combustion.