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    Glossary

    A

    Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI)

      “ADI” of a chemical is the daily intake which, during an entire lifetime, appears to be without appreciable risk to the health of the consumer on the basis of all the known facts at the time of the evaluation of the chemical by the Joint FAO/WHO Meeting on Pesticide Residues. It is expressed in milligrams of the chemical per kilogram of body weight.

    Acute Reference Dose (ARfD)

      An estimate of the amount a substance in food or drinking water, normally expressed on a body weight basis, that can be ingested in a period of 24 h or less without appreciable health risks to the consumer on the basis of all known facts at the time of the evaluation" (JMPR, 2002).

    Acceptable Operator Exposure Limit (AOEL)

      The maximum amount of active substance to which the operator may be exposed without any adverse health effects. The AOEL is expressed as milligrams of the chemical per kilogram body weight of the operator.

    C

    Contact herbicide

      Contact (non-systemic) means that the herbicide does not translocate within the plant, and affects only the parts of the plant where it is applied.

    H

    Hazard assessment

      Process that includes hazard identification and characterization and focuses on the hazard in contrast to risk assessment where exposure assessment is a distinct additional step

    Herbicide-tolerant (HT) crops

      Crops that have acquired the ability to resist the effects of certain broad-spectrum herbicides. Some crops may have acquired that trait through selection or mutation; or more recently, plants may be modified through genetic engineering.

    M

    Maximum residue limit (MRL)

      Maximum concentration of a residue that is legally permitted or recognized as acceptable in, or on, a food, agricultural commodity, or animal feedstuff as set by Codex or a national regulatory authority.

    N

    No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL)

      In toxicology it is specifically the highest tested dose or concentration of a substance (i.e. a drug or chemical) or agent (e.g. radiation), at which no such adverse effect is found in exposed test organisms where higher doses or concentrations resulted in an adverse effect.

    Non-selective (broad-spectrum) herbicide

      Herbicide that controls a broad spectrum of weeds in one treatment.

    P

    Plant protection products (PPPs)

      Plant protection products (PPPs) are the treatments used in both conventional and organic agriculture, to keep crops healthy by protecting them against pests and diseases. Also known as pesticides, PPPs are to plants the equivalent of medicines for humans. PPP companies manufacture synthetic products as well as products based on natural chemicals and minerals.

    R

    Residue (pesticide)

      Substance which remains in or on a feed or food commodity, soil, air, or water following use of a pesticide. For regulatory purposes, it includes the parent compound and any specified derivatives such as degradation and conversion products, metabolites, and impurities considered to be of toxicological significance.

    Resistance (weed resistance)

      Inheritable ability of some pest biotypes within a given population to survive a pesticide treatment that should, under normal use conditions, effectively control populations of that pest.

    Basics

    Glufosinate-ammonium is one of the most widely-applied broad-spectrum herbicides, controlling weeds in a huge variety of crops worldwide.

    Safety

    The use of a plant protection product is only authorized if the resulting exposure of the consumer to residues is shown to be less than a toxicological limit which always includes a safety factor of at least 100.

    Benefits

    For more than 30 years, Glufosinate-ammonium has become one of the key herbicides in global agriculture. For farmers, the product offers a unique, simple and effective weed control in a variety of crops, while preserving a balance between the needs of the environment, economy and society.

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